Concluding and Implementing Land Claim and Self-Government Agreements



  • Inuvialuit Final Agreement (1984)

Agreement Type

  • Regional land claim agreement (Land and Resources agreement)


  • Committee for Original Peoples’ Entitlement
  • Government of Canada 

Map of Settlement Region


The Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) came into effect on July 25, 1984 and was the first land claim agreement settled in the NWT.

The IFA defines the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), which covers approximately 435,000 square kilometres in the Mackenzie Delta, Beaufort Sea, and Amundsen Gulf area. Approximately 90,600 square kilometres of land, including 12,980 square kilometres of subsurface mineral rights are owned by the Inuvialuit. The Inuvialuit, through the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC), received capital transfers from the Federal Government, totalling $152 million over 14 years.

Inuvialuit communities include Aklavik, Ulukhaktok, Inuvik, Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour, and Tuktoyaktuk. The IFA provides for wildlife harvesting rights, socio-economic initiatives and Inuvialuit participation in wildlife and environmental management regimes.

The IFA establishes and provides for Inuvialuit participation on various co-management boards within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. These include the Fisheries Joint Management Committee, Wildlife Management Advisory Council (NWT), Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope), Environmental Impact Screening Committee and Environmental Impact Review Board.  

The Inuvialuit, Canada, and GNWT are currently negotiating an Inuvialuit self-government agreement.

Inuvialuit Regional Corporation

The Inuvialuit Regional Corporation was established with the overall responsibility of representing the Inuvialuit and their rights and benefits and managing the affairs of the settlement as outlined in the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). Its mandate is to continually improve the economic, social and cultural well-being of the Inuvialuit through implementation of the IFA and by all other available means.

Through a democratic process, Inuvialuit beneficiaries directly control the IRC and its subsidiaries. Each Inuvialuit community has a community corporation (CC) with elected directors. The directors of the six community corporations elect the Chair/Chief Executive Officer of IRC. The Chairs of each CC, together with the Chair of IRC, form the IRC Board of Directors. 

For further information about the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation click here to visit their website.

Inuvialuit Game Council

The Inuvialuit Game Council was established in accordance with the IFA to represent the collective Inuvialuit interest in wildlife. Community Hunters and Trappers committees are established by each Inuvialuit Corporation (ICC) and advise the Inuvialuit Game Council on various matters related to hunting, trapping and fishing. 

Inuvialuit Communities 

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA)?
The IFA is a comprehensive land claim agreement between the Government of Canada and the Inuvialuit that provides certainty and clarity with respect to ownership and use of land and resources in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. The GNWT and Yukon Government, although not parties to the IFA, did sign the IFA as part of the federal negotiating team. Both the GNWT and Yukon Government agreed to and have specific obligations within the IFA.                                          

2. Over what geographic area does the IFA apply?
The Inuvialuit Settlement Region encompasses the most northerly portion of the Northwest Territories and the North Slope of the Yukon Territory. The Region includes a large portion of the Beaufort Sea. In the NWT it is bordered to the south by the Gwich’in Settlement Area. Inuvialuit communities include Aklavik, Ulukhaktok, Inuvik, Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour, and Tuktoyaktuk.

3. What rights and benefits did the Inuvialuit receive under the IFA?
The Inuvialuit received ownership to approximately 90,600 sq km of land including 12,980 sq km of subsurface ownership. In addition to lands, the Inuvialuit received $152 million in capital transfer payments from the Government of Canada.  The IFA provides the Inuvialuit with certain wildlife harvesting rights in the ISR, including the exclusive right to harvest game on Inuvialuit lands and the exclusive right to harvest furbearers in the ISR.

4. Who is eligible to be a participant of the IFA?
A person is eligible to be enrolled as a beneficiary of the IFA if they are a Canadian citizen and are Inuvialuit as defined by the Agreement. 

5. What subject matters are included in the IFA?
The IFA has 20 sections including the following:

  • Eligibility and Enrolment
  • Inuvialuit Corporate Structures
  • Inuvialuit and Crown Lands
  • Participation Agreements
  • Wildlife Harvesting and Management
  • Financial Compensation
  • Economic Measures
  • Inuvialuit Social Development Program
  • Arbitration

6. What boards were created by the IFA?
The IFA established five co-management boards that have equal representation from government and the Inuvialuit:

  • The Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) determines whether proposed developments require detailed environmental impact assessments.
  • The Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB) conducts public reviews of development proposals deemed necessary by the EISC.
  • The Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC) advises the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on matters relating to fisheries and marine mammals in the ISR.
  • The Wildlife Management Advisory Council (NWT) advises governments and other appropriate bodies on wildlife management and conservation matters in the NWT portion of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
  • The Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope) advises governments and other appropriate bodies on wildlife management and conservation matters on the Yukon North Slope, including Herschel Island. 

7. Can the Inuvialuit negotiate self-government?

The Inuvialuit, Canada, and GNWT are currently negotiating an Inuvialuit self-government agreement.